Single lower leg swelling. Smoker's leg

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Abstract Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading single lower leg swelling muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness DOMS. Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition.

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For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model was used, with recovery time and running distance as fixed variables, while shear modulus was used as the dependent variable. Sixty-seven percent of muscles exhibited a decreasing stiffness trend from before competition to immediately after competition.

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The preliminary results suggest that SWE could potentially be used to quantify changes of muscle mechanical properties as a way for measuring recovery procedures for runners. Keywords: Running distance, Shear wave speed, Muscle mechanical properties, Shear wave elastography, Running time Introduction Long-distance running competitions have become increasingly popular in the last decade.

However, these competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain to the leg caused by repetitive muscle contraction.

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As a result of increase in internal shear strain during mechanical loading, cytoskeletal inside tissue will single lower leg swelling altered inducing neuromuscular functional impairments and muscle-fiber damage, muscle edema, and delayed eine frau sucht einen schlanken mann jena muscle soreness DOMS Pearcey et al.

Quantifying mechanical properties non-invasively after training and competitions can potentially provide information about microstructural changes in the muscle. This will improve our understanding of the relationships between exercise intensity, symptoms tightness, weakness or sharp pain in lower leg musclesmuscle remodeling and injury in single lower leg swelling. Muscle mechanical single lower leg swelling can potentially be used as biomarkers for muscle health.

Compared to other imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging, SWE is relatively faster, cheaper and capable of assessing the morphological and mechanical properties of the muscle at the same time.

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However, there is limited information on the change of shear modulus in leg muscles as function of running distance and recovery after competition. Changes in muscle mechanical properties, associated with performance and injury, may be related to the increased joint stiffness typically observed after prolonged physical activity. In terms of performance, it was found that increased stiffness is associated with increased jump velocity, jump height and running economy measured by oxygen consumption.

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Regarding injury, although there are no prospective studies that directly correlate injury and stiffness, some retrospective studies suggest that too much stiffness may be related to the bony injuries, while too little stiffness may result in soft tissue injuries Brazier et al.

Chleboun et al. These studies suggest that muscle mechanical properties and resting tone may change after DOMS-inducing exercise.

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SWE is an imaging technique that has been applied to measure mechanical properties e. SWE has been shown to be a reliable method when the transducer is placed parallel to the muscle fiber orientation Alfuraih et al. Saeki et al. Brandenburg et al. MacDonald et al. However, Dubois et al. SWE has been successfully applied to evaluate the mechanical properties of muscles and characterize their changes following injuries Cortez et al. Andonian et al.

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However, running distance and recovery time may affect different leg muscles in different ways particularly the ones subjected to more force, loading rate and shock.

Long-distance running induces numerous cellular changes in the structure and function of leg muscles depending on the running distances and recovery time.

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Examination of shear modulus of lower leg muscles in runners using SWE at different running distances at different time points before and after running may help evaluating physiological changes of lower leg muscles after running competitions. Therefore, SWE may determine whether obtained quantitative shear modulus can serve as reliable tool and useful biomarkers for monitoring changes in muscle stiffness under different extreme stresses. This information may provide insight for optimizing muscle stiffness and performance to reduce fatigue and muscle disorders in runners.

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The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance short-medium and long and time after competition. We hypothesize that the shear modulus of muscle decreases shortly after competition and increases to pre-competition values after recovery.

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Results from this study will provide the background information needed to design appropriate training strategies and recovery procedures for runners. Mehrmohammadi et al. The 64 transducer elements were divided into two subgroups which transmitted ultrasound push pulses simultaneously.

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The region of interest ROI size was adjusted to 7. Acoustic output intensity was measured to ensure the method satisfied FDA limits of intensity for use in human subjects. Finally, the corresponding shear modulus map could be constructed based single lower leg swelling the obtained shear wave speed. The healthy volunteers were instructed about the objective and requirements of our study.

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Runners with a history of significant Achilles tendon pain, previous Achilles tendon surgery, or a history of systemic inflammatory disorders were excluded. The short distance race was a 4 mile trail in Lock Haven, PA, mostly on grass with occasional hills. The half marathons were mostly street running with occasional rolling hills. Table 1 Demographic and training profile data.

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Distance group.